Industry Chain Overview
The most important part of a cell phone is the motherboard, which holds many important chips, such as Process Chip, Memory chips, Input/ Output (I/O) chips and the expansion slots for connecting peripherals. Some chips are soldered onto the motherboard (permanent), and some are removable (so they can be upgraded).
- MOTHERBOARD MAIN COMPONENTS
- RAM (Random Access Memory)
Memory where software resides while it is running, along with the data it is using. Both OS and application software use RAM. RAM is a type of memory that is very fast, but is volatile, meaning all information is lost when electric power is removed. For this reason, it is useful only for temporary storage of data that requires fast access.
A device will typically have RAM and some kind non-volatile memory to store a copy of all software and data that needs to be kept the device is powered off or that specific software is not running. Devices with more RAM can run more complex software and/or more applications at one time.
- Common RAM examples: 512M, 1GB, 2GB,3GB, 4GB.
- ROM (Read-Only Memory)
- Memory that stores data long-term. This memory is non-volatile, meaning it keeps data even when the devices is powered off. This memory stores user content, as well as a copy of all software so it can be loaded into RAM when needed. ROM is better known as flash memory. "Read only" is actually a misnomer that has carried over from older devices that had an OS and applications that where generally fixed and therefore stored in truly "read-only" memory. Modern devices use storage memory that easily and frequently changed, but the term has remained.
- Common ROM examples: 2GB, 8GB，16GB, 32GB, 64GB, 128GB.
- CPU (Central Processing Unit)
- CPU is the chip on the motherboard that acts as the" cell phone's brain". The CPU is also known as the processor or microprocessor. It does calculations, and coordinates the other motherboard components. A better and/or faster processor allows apps to run faster. Raw processor speed is measured in MHz or GHz. (1GHz=1000MHz). However some processors are more powerful than others, so even if two different processors both run at 1GHz, if one is more powerful, it may run software apps faster.
- GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)
- GPU is the part of a device's circuitry that handles the display and animation of visual elements. It may be integrated into the main processor (CPU) or it may be a separate chip. A better and/or faster GPU allows a phone to display video and complex game animation more smoothly.
- GPS (Global Positioning System)
- GPS is a global satellite-based system for determining precise location on earth. When used with compatible apps and services, and with the user's permission, it can also transmit location information to those apps and services. This is called LBS. for example, a location- enabled phone book service might tell you where the nearest Chinese restaurant is, without requiring manual entry of a zip code, etc.
- Wi-Fi (Wireless Local Area Network)
- Wi-Fi is a WLAN technology. It primarily provides short- range wireless high-speed data connections between mobile data devices (such as laptops, PDAs or phones) and nearby Wi-Fi access points (special hardware connected to a wired network and the internet). Wi-Fi is generally much faster than data technologies operating over the cellular network like GPRS, EDGE, 1XRTT, HSDPA, and EV-DO.
- Wi-Fi several versions: 802.11.g, 802.11.b, 802.11n, etc
- Bluetooth is a short- range wireless technology used to create PANs (personal area networks) among your devices, and with other nearby devices. Bluetooth allows you to leave your phone in your pocket, while talking on your phone with a Bluetooth headset- with no wires. You can also exchange contact or scheduling information with other Bluetooth- enable phones nearby, or send such information to a nearby Bluetooth-enable printer.
- Usual Bluetooth version: 3.0, 4.0.
- GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
- GPRS a packet- switched technology that enables data communications. GPRS is used for various data applications on phones, including wireless internet (WAP), MMS, and software that connects to the internet. Basically, any network connection that is not voice or text messaging uses a data connection like GPRS. GPRS offers a tenfold increase in data speed over previous (circuit- switched) technologies, up to 115kbit/s( in theory). Typical real- world speeds are around 30-40 kbps.
- A GPS: most phones with "GPS" in fact use A-GPS technology. The "A" stands for assisted, and means that phone relies on the network for help in determining location. Although the phone does receive GPS signals directly from the satellites, it can't determine actual location without help from the cell network.
- Baseband is a device (a chip or part if a chip) in a network interface that manages all the radio functions (all functions that require an antenna). baseband of frequencies produced by a transducer, such as a microphone telegraph key, or other signal- initiating device, prior to initial modulation. In wireless voice, the sound frequencies of the voice, before it is encoded and transmitted.
- Antenna is a physical device for sending or receiving radio signals. Antennas come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some wireless phones contain internal antennas, while others have antennas that extend above the phone. The size and shape of an antenna is carefully designed and tuned to the type of radio wave being transmitted and received.
- LDS:LDS technology uses a laser beam that creates the antenna pattern on the surface of complex 3D parts molded from an LDS resin. The entire production process - consisting of molding, laser structuring, and metallization - is fast and easy to set up. The key advantages of this technology include: greater flexibility for design changes and the possibility of creating antenna structures on a 3D surface. These features allow customers to achieve a higher level of product integration with fewer components and lower costs. Molex is the market leader in LDS technology with over 20 million LDS antennas produced so far.
- Motherboard is the main part of a mobile phone, so there are many motherboard manufacturers, like Along, Bird, Hisense, Boway and many others. Below is the full list of most famous motherboard suppliers.
- Motherboard Manufacturers List>>
- Generally, the motherboard manufacturers always cooperate with chipset suppliers. There are three most-used chipset suppliers: MediaTek, Qualcomm and Spreadtrum are most-used chipset on China mobile phone. There are some parameters for those chipset for reference.